Common Notations – Các Ký Hiệu Thông Thường Được Dùng

Common Notations for the Model Pseudo Codes in This Web Site

[1] $[BlockName]         — This is the name of a block, which could be a set of instructions, a process, or a task.

                                      — In case there is a reserved word, the colon (:) j separate the keyword and identifier.  

                                          $[Reserved-Word: identifier]  

                                      — If there is only the Reserved-Word, then the block uses the "Default" name.                

                                     — Ex:         $[Tree: Tree1]





[2] {                               — The beginning of a block

[3] }                               — The end of a block

[4] Circle Map: (Reserved words: "Circle" and "link")

     [link] indicates that the items following the operant are inside the circle of the main subject.



X [link] (a, b, c, d);     — This represents a circle map in which a, b, c and d is in the circle of A.



[5] Bubble Map: (Reserved word: "Bubble" and "associate")

     [associate] is a stronger relationship than [link] and indicates that the subject has the subordinate bubbles around.



X [associate] (a, b, c);   — This represents a bubble map in which a, b, and c associated with A.

                                                 — [associate] is a stronger relationship than [link].



[6] Double-Bubble Map: (Reserved word: "DoubleBubble" and "associate")

    A Double Bubble Map is used to compare and contrast between two subjects.  There are some items unique for each, but others are shared-characteristics. 

    For example, a Double Bubble Map can have the following pseudo codes:



 X [associate] (a, b);

(X, Y) [associate] (c, d, e);

Y [associate] (f, g);



[7] Flow Map: (Reserved word "Flow" and "–>")

     The operant [–>] indicates the flow of the sequence.


       $[Flow: FlowMap1]


X [–>] Y [–>] Z;    — This represents a flow map including a sequence of X, Y and Z.


To represent sub-phases under a major phase.  For example, X includes the sub-phases X1, X2, and X3.  Meanwhile, Y includes the sub-phases Y1 and then Y2.

      $[Flow: FlowMap5]


(X (X1 [–>] X2 [–>] X3)) [–>]       — Recommend to jump to the next line

Y (Y1 [–>] Y2);                             — The semi-colon indicates the statement ending.



[8] Multi-Flow Map: (Reserved word: "MultiFlow" and "–>")

          "MultiFlow" is the reserved word.  If there is no reserved word, then the block is just a regular one.

Suppose that the entities A and B lead to C which also leads to D and E.  To represent this map,

we use:



A [–>] C;

B [–>] C;

C [–>] D;

C [–>] E;



[9] Brace Map: (Reserved word: "Brace" and "contain" )

     The operant [contain] indicates the whole-part relationship.

      It is a stronger relationship than [associate] or [link]. 

      For example $[Brace: B1]{…}




A [contain] (a, b, c, d);



[10] Bridge Map:  (Reserved word: "Bridge", "analogy", "/", and "as" )




[analogy( to have an influence on )]

( A / B [as]

  C / D [as]

   E / F);


— The above pseudo codes say that A has an influence on B as C has an influence on D and as E has an influence on F.


[11] Tree-Map:  (Reserved word: "Tree" and "branch")

        Each tree could one or multiple sub-branches.




                         T1 [branch] ( B1, B2, B3, B4 [branch] (C1, C2, C3 [branch] (D1))); 


                 — The above pseudo codes say the tree T1 includes four sub-branches B1, B2, B3, and B4.

                 — B4 itself has three branches C1, C2, and C3.

                 — Finally, C3 has one subbranch which is D1.


[12] Systemigram: (Reserved word: "Systemigram", "– function–>", and "== function ==>");

[12.1] [– function –>]         — This is a one-way link by a verb or preposition.

[12.2] [== function ==>]      — This is the mainstay of an emphasized function.

In a systemigram container, you can use other reserved words such as "contain", "associate" or "link" depending how strong the sub-elements associated with the main object. 


The driver turns the key, which ignites the starter and the engine can run.  The engine pushes the wheels forward which carry the car including the driver along the road.

$[Systemigram: Car1]


Driver [== turn ==>] Key;

Key [== ignite ==>] Starter;

Starter [== run ==>] Engine;

Engine [== push ==>] (Wheels [contain] ( Wheel1, Wheel2, Wheel3, Wheel4));

Wheels [== pull ==>] (Car [contain] Driver);

Car [– run on –>] Road;


[13] Causal Loop: (Reserved word: "CausalLoop", "+", "-", "delay(+), "delay(-), and "stock")

[13.1]  [+]  — Increase

[13.2]  [-]   — Decrease

[13.3]  [delay (+)]  — Increase but take a long time to be visible

[13.4]  [delay (-)]   — Decrease but take a long time to be effective

[13.5]  [stock (stock-name)]


[14] Iceberg: (Reserved word: "Iceberg", "Event", "Pattern", "Structure", and "Model")

           Besides of the "Iceberg" as the block name, there are other reserved words: "Event", "Pattern", "Structure", and "Model".

          For example:

$[Iceberg: Name]


    $[Event] ( A, B);

    $[Pattern] (P1);

    $[Structure] (S1, S2);

    $[Model] (M1);



[15] Conceptagon: (Reserved word: "Conceptagon)

        "Conceptagon" is the reserved word. There are other reserved words associated with Conceptagon:

        – Wholes, Parts, Relationships,

        – Structure, Function, Process,

        – Command, Control, Communication,

        – Variety, Harmony, Parsimony,

        – Emergence, Hierarchy, Openness,

        – Boundary, Interior, Exterior,

        – Inputs, Outputs, and Transformations.


            ${Conceptagon: C1}


               C1 [contain] ( Wholes, Parts, Relationships,

                                      Structure, Function, Process,

                                      Command, Control, Communication,

                                      Variety, Harmony, Parsimony,

                                       Hierarchy, Openness, Emergence,

                                       Interior, Exterior, Boundary,

                                       Inputs, Outputs, and Transformations);

               $[whole: W] [contain] (A, B);


[16] Notes: (Reserved word: "Notes")

This indicates a block of notes inside the notations.


$[Notes: Note1]


   You could type any things here;


[17] Inline Comments: (Reserved word: "//")

We can start an inline comment which is convenient for a short note next to each line of notations.

If there is a need to have a long note paragraph that has a name and could link to other places,

then use the "Notes" block.


   //This a short explanation or description. 


[18] Process: (Reserved word: "Process" and "Step")

A process indicates a block which has the characteristics of a Process.  A process is sequence of events or actions that follow steps by steps

from the beginning to the end.


$[Process: Cooking_Rice]


    $[Step: 1_Presession] Get_The_Right_Amount_Of_Rice;

    $[Step: 2_PreparingRice]





     $[Step: 3_Cooking] Turn_On_Cooker_And_Wait;


[19] Description: (Reserved word: "Description")

A Description is a block that includes a collection of statements that describe an object, event, phenomenon, person, etc.

The order of the statement in Description is not as critical as the Process.


$[Description: Hoa_Mai]


Hoa [associate] (Màu Vàng, Màu Trắng, Màu Đỏ);

Thân [associate] (Mảnh Mai, Gầy);

Lá [associate] (Ít về số lượng, rụng về mùa xuân);


[20] Problem: (Reserved word: "Problem")

A Problem is a block that describes a problem.


$[Problem: Car_Broken]






[21] Reason: (Reserved word: "Reason")

Reason is a block to indicate reasoning arguments for a viewpoint.


$[Reason: Arguments_Against_OJ_Simpson]





[22] Knowledge: (Reserved word: "Knowledge")

The knowledge block includes a set of statements that associate with a knowledge acquiring process.


$[Knowledge: Cell_Operation]



[23] Comprehension: (Reserved word: "Comprehension")

The Comprehension block includes a set of statements that associate with a knowledge acquiring process.


$[Comprehension: TheMeaningsOPicassoPainting]



[23] Application: (Reserved word: "Application")

The Application block includes a set of statements that associate with an application process.


$[Application: HowToDesignAnOpticalBinocular]



[24] Evaluation: (Reserved word: Evaluation)

An evaluation block tells the reader that the included statements aim to evaluate a certain object.

It could be an effort to do appraisals or assessment.


$[Evaluation: AppraiseTheValueOfTheHouse]