Common Notations – Các Ký Hiệu Thông Thường Được Dùng

Common Notations for the Model Pseudo Codes in This Web Site

[1] $[BlockName]         — This is the name of a block, which could be a set of instructions, a process, or a task.

                                      — In case there is a reserved word, the colon (:) j separate the keyword and identifier.  

                                          $[Reserved-Word: identifier]  

                                      — If there is only the Reserved-Word, then the block uses the "Default" name.                

                                     — Ex:         $[Tree: Tree1]

{

 

}

 

[2] {                               — The beginning of a block

[3] }                               — The end of a block

[4] Circle Map: (Reserved words: "Circle" and "link")

     [link] indicates that the items following the operant are inside the circle of the main subject.

     $[Circle]

      {

X [link] (a, b, c, d);     — This represents a circle map in which a, b, c and d is in the circle of A.

      }

 

[5] Bubble Map: (Reserved word: "Bubble" and "associate")

     [associate] is a stronger relationship than [link] and indicates that the subject has the subordinate bubbles around.

     $[Bubble]

     {

X [associate] (a, b, c);   — This represents a bubble map in which a, b, and c associated with A.

                                                 — [associate] is a stronger relationship than [link].

     }

 

[6] Double-Bubble Map: (Reserved word: "DoubleBubble" and "associate")

    A Double Bubble Map is used to compare and contrast between two subjects.  There are some items unique for each, but others are shared-characteristics. 

    For example, a Double Bubble Map can have the following pseudo codes:

     $[DoubleBubble]

     {

 X [associate] (a, b);

(X, Y) [associate] (c, d, e);

Y [associate] (f, g);

      }

 

[7] Flow Map: (Reserved word "Flow" and "–>")

     The operant [–>] indicates the flow of the sequence.

     Example:

       $[Flow: FlowMap1]

       {

X [–>] Y [–>] Z;    — This represents a flow map including a sequence of X, Y and Z.

       }

To represent sub-phases under a major phase.  For example, X includes the sub-phases X1, X2, and X3.  Meanwhile, Y includes the sub-phases Y1 and then Y2.

      $[Flow: FlowMap5]

       {

(X (X1 [–>] X2 [–>] X3)) [–>]       — Recommend to jump to the next line

Y (Y1 [–>] Y2);                             — The semi-colon indicates the statement ending.

       }

 

[8] Multi-Flow Map: (Reserved word: "MultiFlow" and "–>")

          "MultiFlow" is the reserved word.  If there is no reserved word, then the block is just a regular one.

Suppose that the entities A and B lead to C which also leads to D and E.  To represent this map,

we use:

$[MultiFlow]

{

A [–>] C;

B [–>] C;

C [–>] D;

C [–>] E;

}

 

[9] Brace Map: (Reserved word: "Brace" and "contain" )

     The operant [contain] indicates the whole-part relationship.

      It is a stronger relationship than [associate] or [link]. 

      For example $[Brace: B1]{…}

      Example:

        $[Brace]

{

A [contain] (a, b, c, d);

}

 

[10] Bridge Map:  (Reserved word: "Bridge", "analogy", "/", and "as" )

       Example:

$[Bridge]

{

[analogy( to have an influence on )]

( A / B [as]

  C / D [as]

   E / F);

}

— The above pseudo codes say that A has an influence on B as C has an influence on D and as E has an influence on F.

 

[11] Tree-Map:  (Reserved word: "Tree" and "branch")

        Each tree could one or multiple sub-branches.

        Example:

                 $[Tree]

                 {

                         T1 [branch] ( B1, B2, B3, B4 [branch] (C1, C2, C3 [branch] (D1))); 

                 }

                 — The above pseudo codes say the tree T1 includes four sub-branches B1, B2, B3, and B4.

                 — B4 itself has three branches C1, C2, and C3.

                 — Finally, C3 has one subbranch which is D1.

 

[12] Systemigram: (Reserved word: "Systemigram", "– function–>", and "== function ==>");

[12.1] [– function –>]         — This is a one-way link by a verb or preposition.

[12.2] [== function ==>]      — This is the mainstay of an emphasized function.

In a systemigram container, you can use other reserved words such as "contain", "associate" or "link" depending how strong the sub-elements associated with the main object. 

       Example:

The driver turns the key, which ignites the starter and the engine can run.  The engine pushes the wheels forward which carry the car including the driver along the road.

$[Systemigram: Car1]

{

Driver [== turn ==>] Key;

Key [== ignite ==>] Starter;

Starter [== run ==>] Engine;

Engine [== push ==>] (Wheels [contain] ( Wheel1, Wheel2, Wheel3, Wheel4));

Wheels [== pull ==>] (Car [contain] Driver);

Car [– run on –>] Road;

 

[13] Causal Loop: (Reserved word: "CausalLoop", "+", "-", "delay(+), "delay(-), and "stock")

[13.1]  [+]  — Increase

[13.2]  [-]   — Decrease

[13.3]  [delay (+)]  — Increase but take a long time to be visible

[13.4]  [delay (-)]   — Decrease but take a long time to be effective

[13.5]  [stock (stock-name)]

 

[14] Iceberg: (Reserved word: "Iceberg", "Event", "Pattern", "Structure", and "Model")

           Besides of the "Iceberg" as the block name, there are other reserved words: "Event", "Pattern", "Structure", and "Model".

          For example:

$[Iceberg: Name]

{

    $[Event] ( A, B);

    $[Pattern] (P1);

    $[Structure] (S1, S2);

    $[Model] (M1);

}

 

[15] Conceptagon: (Reserved word: "Conceptagon)

        "Conceptagon" is the reserved word. There are other reserved words associated with Conceptagon:

        – Wholes, Parts, Relationships,

        – Structure, Function, Process,

        – Command, Control, Communication,

        – Variety, Harmony, Parsimony,

        – Emergence, Hierarchy, Openness,

        – Boundary, Interior, Exterior,

        – Inputs, Outputs, and Transformations.

           Example:

            ${Conceptagon: C1}

            {

               C1 [contain] ( Wholes, Parts, Relationships,

                                      Structure, Function, Process,

                                      Command, Control, Communication,

                                      Variety, Harmony, Parsimony,

                                       Hierarchy, Openness, Emergence,

                                       Interior, Exterior, Boundary,

                                       Inputs, Outputs, and Transformations);

               $[whole: W] [contain] (A, B);

            }

[16] Notes: (Reserved word: "Notes")

This indicates a block of notes inside the notations.

Example:

$[Notes: Note1]

{

   You could type any things here;

}

[17] Inline Comments: (Reserved word: "//")

We can start an inline comment which is convenient for a short note next to each line of notations.

If there is a need to have a long note paragraph that has a name and could link to other places,

then use the "Notes" block.

Example:

   //This a short explanation or description. 

 

[18] Process: (Reserved word: "Process" and "Step")

A process indicates a block which has the characteristics of a Process.  A process is sequence of events or actions that follow steps by steps

from the beginning to the end.

Example:

$[Process: Cooking_Rice]

{

    $[Step: 1_Presession] Get_The_Right_Amount_Of_Rice;

    $[Step: 2_PreparingRice]

     {

          Wash_The_Rice;

          Put_Rice_In_Steam_Cooker;

      }

     $[Step: 3_Cooking] Turn_On_Cooker_And_Wait;

}

[19] Description: (Reserved word: "Description")

A Description is a block that includes a collection of statements that describe an object, event, phenomenon, person, etc.

The order of the statement in Description is not as critical as the Process.

Example:

$[Description: Hoa_Mai]

{

Hoa [associate] (Màu Vàng, Màu Trắng, Màu Đỏ);

Thân [associate] (Mảnh Mai, Gầy);

Lá [associate] (Ít về số lượng, rụng về mùa xuân);

}

[20] Problem: (Reserved word: "Problem")

A Problem is a block that describes a problem.

Example: 

$[Problem: Car_Broken]

{

Engine_Not_On;

Car_Not_Run;

Smoke_Leaked_Out;

}

[21] Reason: (Reserved word: "Reason")

Reason is a block to indicate reasoning arguments for a viewpoint.

Example:

$[Reason: Arguments_Against_OJ_Simpson]

{

A_Knife_Found;

Blood_In_Garden;

Inconsistent_Testimony;

[22] Knowledge: (Reserved word: "Knowledge")

The knowledge block includes a set of statements that associate with a knowledge acquiring process.

Example:

$[Knowledge: Cell_Operation]

{

}

[23] Comprehension: (Reserved word: "Comprehension")

The Comprehension block includes a set of statements that associate with a knowledge acquiring process.

Example:

$[Comprehension: TheMeaningsOPicassoPainting]

{

}

[23] Application: (Reserved word: "Application")

The Application block includes a set of statements that associate with an application process.

Example:

$[Application: HowToDesignAnOpticalBinocular]

{

}

[24] Evaluation: (Reserved word: Evaluation)

An evaluation block tells the reader that the included statements aim to evaluate a certain object.

It could be an effort to do appraisals or assessment.

Example:

$[Evaluation: AppraiseTheValueOfTheHouse]

{

}